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外文翻译 在VR里,为什么需要把游戏音频放在聚光灯里?

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2016-10-28 14:02:47 显示全部楼层 阅读模式

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Why VR will put Game Audio in the Spotlight


VR中为什么需要把游戏音频放在聚光灯里?


Article originally published on Audiokinetic blog (source: http://blog.audiokinetic.com/why-game-audio-will-put-vr-in-the-spotlight?ref=upflow.co)


本文最初发表在Audiokinetic 的博客上面





The sense of Presence
存在感


The word that is on everyone’s lips when describing VR (Virtual Reality) is  “immersion”.  A cool word indeed. To achieve this ultimate goal however, developers need to simulate the perception of being physically present in a virtual environment, and we call this the sense of presence. “Presence is a psychological state or subjective perception in which even though part or all of an individual's current experience is generated by and/or filtered through human-made technology, part or all of the individual's perception fails to accurately acknowledge the role of the technology in the experience.”  (The International Society of Presence Research - ISPR)


人们挂在嘴边来描述VR(虚拟现实)的单词是“沉浸感”。的确是很酷的一个词。然而为实现这终极目标,开发者需要在虚拟现实的环境中模拟身体的知觉,我们称着为存在感。存在是一种心理状态或主观感知,其中,部分或整体个人体验感受是/或是通过人造的科技过滤产生的,部分或整体体验是/或是由在体验中对角色的精确认知导致人为认知衰退造成的。


Creating this level of true immersion is a real challenge. While graphics already made tremendous improvements in the past few years, audio still has a long way to go in regards to reaching its true potential of playing a major role in this new and still evolving field of VR.


创造这个级别的真实体验确实是一个挑战。当前的图形比之前几年有了巨大的进步,音频仍然有很长的路要走,以达到其在这个新的和仍在发展的VR领域中发挥主要作用的真正潜力。


Spatial immersion and multi-sensory uses in VR gaming


在VR游戏中空间包围和多感官使用


In console and PC games, immersion can be separated into three categories: narrative immersion (players being invested in a story), tactical immersion (players performing tactile operations that involve skills), and strategic immersion (more cerebral, associated with mental challenges).  In VR however, a fourth category is added: spatial immersion, which convinces the player the artificial world surrounding them is real.  Among the former three categories, spatial immersion is also of great importance when it comes to triggering the sense of presence and delivering a believable and immersive environment.


在独立和PC游戏中,沉浸感被分为三项:叙事性沉浸(玩家投入到故事中去),战术沉浸(玩家执行涉及到技能的操作)和策略沉浸(更专注,与精力挑战)。然而在VR中,又添加了第四项:空间沉浸,也就是说玩家在人造的世界中对他们来说是真实的。在包括前三项的沉浸感中,当涉及到存在感和提供可信性和沉浸的环境中,空间沉浸变的非常重要。


To position ourselves physiologically, our visual system is used to help guide our bodies within our environment, our ears provide crucial information about our surroundings, and smell provides complimentary surrounding information.


人为了生理上对自己定位,我们的视觉系统通常被用来帮助身体感觉环境,耳朵提供了关于我们周围环境的重要信息,味觉也同样提供周围信息。


Audio goes beyond vision in the sense that it is not limited to our field of view, but rather provides a 360-degree feedback of information about our surrounding environment.


音频在某角度来说比视觉更好,因为不受视觉范围的限制,而是对我们周围环境信息提供了360度的反馈。






In order to create realistic spatial immersion, ideally, we would want to be able to use all of our five senses and have full sensory processing (process of using our bodies effectively within an environment). The problem at the current stage in VR development is that we are unable to utilize all five senses. Sight and hearing are used as the primary senses, touch is not used very effectively, and taste and smell are not integrated at all at this point. With that in mind, audio is perhaps the most powerful medium we can develop in order to “hack” the user’s brain and create a complete 360-degree experience that offers spatial immersion, as it gives the representation of a realistic space by providing virtual sources (which can’t be necessarily seen in the scene or action) rendered through a simulated acoustic environment.


为创建真实空间的沉浸感,理想情况下,我们希望可以利用我们的五官,且有全感觉加工处理(在一个环境中有效的使用我们的身体的过程)。问题在于当前阶段的VR开放,我们不可能使用全部的五官感觉。视觉和听觉做为了主要的因素,触觉不是很有效,味觉和气味完全没有用武之地。在这种情况下,听觉也许是我们可以开发的用来“影响”用户大脑的最强大的媒介了,创建一个完整的360度体验,提高空间沉浸,由于它是通过一个虚拟的源通过模拟声学来呈现一个现实的空间(这个在场景中或实际中不是必须的)


360-degree experience to create spatial immersion


360度的体验创建空间沉浸


The first step to enhancing spatial immersion through audio realism is audio positioning. A pattern emerging from recent studies (Skalski & Whitbred, 2010) showed that better sound positioning in games (surround VS stereo) had a much higher impact on the player’s spatial immersion and enjoyment than visual quality (HD VS standard).


实现音频增强空间沉浸感的第一步是音频定位。从最近的研究(Skalski & Whitbred, 2010)中出现一个模式表明,在游戏中(环绕立体声)中,更好的音源位置对玩家空间沉浸感和享受的影响比视频质量(高清VS普清)要大的多。


The brain uses subtle differences in loudness, tone and timing between our two ears to localize sound sources in three-dimensional positions (horizontal, vertical, and distance). In VR, viewers are literally in the middle of a scene, so the process of determining the location of sound sources in a simulated acoustic environment is the most important audio improvement towards creating natural listening experiences.


大脑通过我们两只耳朵之间的响度,音调和时间的细微差别来定位声源在三维中的位置(水平,垂直和距离)。在虚拟现实中,玩家确实在场景中间,因此在模拟声音环境中决定声源位置的过程,对创建自然听觉体验音频改进是最重要的。






Early in media history, we discovered that the human ears pick up audio in three dimensions and the first binaural recording goes back to 1881.


在媒体史的早起,我们发现人耳第一次双耳录音来拾取三维音频可追溯到1881年。


“Binaural recording is a method of recording sound that uses two microphones, arranged with the intent to create a 3-D stereo sound sensation for the listener of actually being in the room with the performers or instruments. This effect is often created using a technique known as "dummy head recording", wherein a mannequin head is outfitted with a microphone in each ear.” (Wikipedia, “Binaural Recording”)


“双耳录制是一种使用两个麦克风录制声音的方法,旨在为演奏者或乐器的房间中的收听者创建三维立体声感觉。 这种效果通常使用称为“伪人头录音”的技术来创建,其中在人体模型头部每个耳朵中配备有麦克风。“(维基百科,”双耳录音“)


In games, 3D audio should be created with real-time processing since we can’t anticipate where sound objects will be located corresponding to the player's location and head movements.  So, about a century after its invention, binaural recording is now being revisited with binaural processing, and engineers and investors are working hard to develop the best binaural algorithms suitable for VR.


在游戏中,3D音频应该用实时处理的方法来创建,因为我们没有办法预期声音对象的硬广在某个位置,来匹配玩家位置和头部移动。因此在其被发明一个世纪后,现在双耳录音正在被重新使用,且工程师和投资者都正在努力开发适合于VR的最近双耳算法。


Indeed, because of its nature in regards to the required use of stereo headphones rather than speakers to replicate 3D positioning (necessary in VR to isolate the player from the outside world and have audio playback that matches head/ears movements relative to the field of vision), binaural has been logically chosen by the professionals as the new standard for 3D audio processing instead of the usual surround techniques (limited to horizontal and distance audio positioning).


而实际上,由于需使用的立体声耳机而不是扬声器来复制3D定位(在VR中将玩家与外部世界隔离是必要的,并且对于视野范围,需要可以匹配相对于头/耳运动的音频回放)的这个特性 ,专业人员逻辑上愿意选择双耳作为3D音频处理的新标准,而不是通常的环绕技术(仅限于水平和距离音频定位)。


Conclusion
总结


Many audio challenges, considerations, and needs are being exposed as we work with VR.  By exploring these further, we will be able to push the boundaries of the VR and gaming industry altogether.  And, although the gaming industry has been improving visual quality in the last generation of consoles, with the VR development on a rapid rise, the mindset within the VR industry is quick focusing on audio as the VR community is realizing that better audio realism will increase the player’s enjoyment and engagement levels, elevate the state of immersion, and ultimately, the sense of presence.
在我们使用VR时,有许多音频事情需要挑战、考虑,且需求正在增长。通过进一步的探索,我们将会推动VR和游戏产业的边际。虽然游戏行业一直在提高最新一代优先级的画面质量,伴随这VR的迅速崛起,VR行业迅速的集中到来音频领域,因为VR社区意识到,更好的音频实现会大大增加玩家的享受和参与感,提高沉浸状态,最终提高存在感。


360-degree audio positioning is just one of the areas where audio improvements are being pursued as a direct result of VR developments.  Audio working tools are also in continuous development with new technologies catering to VR needs and its uniqueness when it comes to the mixing techniques required, in order to enhance VR experiences.


360度的音频定位只是VR开发带来的音频改进的一个直接结果。音频的处理工具也随着VR需求发展也不断发展,新技术及其在混合领域用于VR技术需求方面,以增强VR体验。


Audio is the next medium for the industry to explore and focus on, and VR is certainly helping put audio the spotlight!


音频是行业探索和聚焦的下一个新媒介,VR肯定会让音频成为焦点!


原帖地址:
http://www.gamasutra.com/blogs/AlexRiviere/20161012/283142/Why_VR_will_put_Game_Audio_in_the_Spotlight.php
作者:Audiokinetic
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2016-10-28 17:06:26 显示全部楼层
还以为是技术的实现手段,把音频和聚光灯放一起会有什么化学效应,原来是我想多了
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